Recent articles, reviews, reports and research relating to drugs used in immunotherapy (e.g. sipuleucel-T), ADT/hormone therapy (e.g. abiraterone, enzalutamide), radiopharmaceuticals (e.g. radium-223) and chemotherapy (e.g. docetaxel, cabazitaxel)

Note: for supplements (such as selenium, vitamins, lycopene) and other drugs (such as dutasteride, aspirin, statins, metformin) see items on this page

ADT-only treatment for localised prostate cancer may not improve overall or disease-specific survival rate. A population-based cohort study of 66,717 medicare patients in the USA was undertaken by Grace L Lu-Yao et al and is reported in a JAMA Internal Medicine online article dated 14 July 2014 that can be read here or here: The authors conclude: “Primary ADT is not associated with improved long-term overall or disease-specific survival for men with localized (T1/T2) prostate cancer. Primary ADT should be used only to palliate symptoms of disease or prevent imminent symptoms associated with disease progression.”. An online Medscape Urology article by Roxanne Nelson dated 14 July 2014, provides supplementary information and puts the study in context. She states: “Previous research has shown that ADT is appropriate for use in high-risk patients and in combination with other treatments, but ADT alone, especially in an older population, should be carefully considered.” She goes on to indicate that Dr. Lu-Yao said in a statement: "Because of the potential side effects of osteoporosis, diabetes, and decreased muscle tone, clinicians must carefully consider the rationale behind ADT treatment if used as the primary therapy for older patients". The Nelson article can be read here or here:

Enzalutamide decreases risk of progression of metastatic prostate cancer.
This is a single double-blind phase 3 study reported online in the New England Journal of Medicine, 31 July 2014 by Tomasz Beer et al. It is reported here or here: Their conclusion: “Enzalutamide significantly decreased the risk of radiographic progression and death and delayed the initiation of chemotherapy in men with metastatic prostate cancer.”

Chemotherapy (docetaxel) and ADT therapy combined increases survival time for patients with metastatic prostate cancer. This is a single research study reported by Christopher J Sweeney and is summarised in a web article reported here or here: by Jody A Charnow who writes: “Starting chemotherapy (Docetaxel) along with androgen deprivation therapy in patients newly diagnosed with metastatic prostate cancer improved median overall survival by more than 13 months...”. Reported online in the Renal & urology News, 2 June 2014.

Safe to Delay ADT When Prostate Cancer Recurs. Article by Nick Mulcahy dated 15 May 2014. Conclusion: “It is obvious that delaying ADT prevents unpleasant and debilitating adverse effects, such as sexual dysfunction, bone loss, and muscle mass loss. But a new study indicates that a strategy of delay does not have a negative impact on survival, which has been an unknown.” Read the article here or here:

Intermittent androgen deprivation is a rational standard-of-care treatment for all stages of progressive prostate cancer: results from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Article by D Brungs et al dated 1 April 2014. Conclusion: “IAD (intermittent androgen deprivation) is non-inferior to continuous androgen deprivation in terms of overall survival and cancer-specific survival, and is at least non-inferior in terms of time to progression. This meta- analysis confirms IAD as a valid standard of care for managing prostate cancer patients.“ Read the article here or here:

"Drug for prostate cancer with bone metastases approved in Europe" - article about Radium-223 (previously known as Alpharadin) by Zosia Chustecka - Medscape Urology November 15 2013. Read the web article here or here:

"Primary ADT not beneficial in most cases of early prostate cancer" - article by Delicia Yard - Renal & Urology News 21 March 2014. This summarises a single retrospective cohort study undertaken by Arnold Potosky et al. Read the Yard article here or here: An abstract by the authors is also available here in the Journal of Clinical Oncology's online release of 17 March 2014 or here:

Sequential use of therapeutics in treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This article supplements the following one of Hurwitz and Petrylak. It is written by Aurelius Omlin et al and is published in Theoretical Advanced Urology 2014;6(1) pp3-14. The authors' abstract: "In the last three years, five novel treatments have been shown to improve survival in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). These novel treatments have distinct mechanisms of action: tubulin-binding chemotherapy (cabazitaxel); immunotherapy (sipuleucel-T); CYP-17 inhibition (abiraterone); androgen receptor (AR) blockade (enzalutamide); and radioisotope therapy (radium-223). For a number of years, docetaxel was the only treatment with a proven survival benefit for patients with CRPC. Therefore, somewhat artificially, three treatment spaces for drug development in CRPC have emerged: pre- docetaxel; docetaxel combinations; and post-docetaxel. For patients progressing after docetaxel- based chemotherapy, treatment options available outside of clinical trials now include abiraterone, cabazitaxel and enzalutamide. Prospective data on how to best use these novel agents sequentially are not available. Clinicians face the difficult task of choosing between treatment options for individual patients to maximize patient benefit. Treatment evaluation in patients with CRPC remains challenging due to the predominance of bone metastatic disease and the lack of validated surrogate markers for survival. This review summarizes the data available with regards to sequencing of the novel treatments for CRPC." The full article can be read here or here:

An approach to sequencing of agents for treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
In a CancerNetwork Oncology article dated 15 November 2013 Michael Hurwitz and Daniel Petrylak outline an approach to sequencing of agents for treatment of CRPC. Their abstract states: "Ten years ago, the clinician treating metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) had palliative options for treatment of symptomatic patients, such as the combination of mitoxantrone combined with prednisone, as well as isotope therapy. In 2004, docetaxel-based chemotherapy regimens were shown to provide an overall survival benefit for patients with CRPC. Today, the prostate cancer oncologist is in the enviable position of having six US Food and Drug Administration– approved agents to choose from: immunotherapy (sipuleucel-T), hormonal therapies (abiraterone, enzalutamide), radiopharmaceuticals (radium-223), and chemotherapy (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), in addition to agents being administered in clinical trials. In general, the sequencing of these drugs is based upon the entry criteria from the phase III trials that led to their approval. Selection of treatment is based on symptoms, sites of disease (bone vs visceral) and types of prior treatment (docetaxel-ineligible vs pre-docetaxel vs post- docetaxel setting). Unfortunately, there is a lack of useful correlative biomarkers in prostate cancer to help oncologists select treatment. This problem is best illustrated in the post-docetaxel castration- resistant setting, for which there are indications to use all five other approved agents. In this review we will outline an approach to sequencing these new therapies, with particular attention paid to the biology of CRPC". The full article can be read here or here:

Issues in the treatment of prostate cancer
. In the September 2013 edition of the Translational Andrology and Urology; 2013;2(3) is an informative review by J L Silberstein et al relating to issues concerning treatment of prostate cancer. In the abstract of the article the authors make these observations: "Recently, tremendous progress has been made for those with advanced disease, in particular those with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Within the last 4 years, five novel FDA approved agents, acting through distinct mechanisms have been FDA approved for mCRPC. With the introduction of these new agents a host of new challenges have arisen. Timing, sequencing and combinations of these novel agents are welcomed challenges when compared with the lack of available therapies just a few years ago." The full article can be read here:
or here:

Current, new and novel therapy for castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC)
In a 2013 Medscape Urology article by Josep M Gaya
et al there is an informative brief review of therapies for CPRC. The conclusion drawn is: "CRPC is a poor outcome scenario with limited treatment options. Advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying CRPC has translated into a variety of treatment approaches. The number of treatment options for men with metastatic CRPC has increased over the last 2 years with recent FDA approvals. Docetaxel, abiraterone and sipulecel-T are currently the preferred first-line treatment options for CRPC; cabazitaxel is a new option for patients after docetaxel failure as well as abiraterone and enzalutamide (MVD3100) which have also demonstrated a survival benefit. Denosumab, a recent bone protecting agent has recently demonstrated its superiority compared with zoledronic acid in the prevention of SREs in men with bone metastases and CRPC, without imparing renal function. Having reviewed the incremental modest but much needed benefits conferred by these recently approved agents, novel and tolerable agents are necessary to make future gains. Promising new drugs are TAK-700, RA-223 and ipilimumab, have demonstrated promising results in Phase III studies and could soon be approved by the FDA. In addition, new data supporting the role of novel molecular targets are promoting new clinical trials with new drugs." The article is here: or here:

Sequencing of agents used in treatment of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer (CRPC). In a CancerNetwork Oncology article dated 15 Nov. 2013, Michael Hurwitz and Daniel Petrylak provide a review of agents used in treatment of CRPC. They also discuss the issue of sequencing of administration of such agents and the use of combinations of the agents. The authors conclude that: "It is an incredibly exciting time to be a prostate cancer oncologist. For the first time ever, we have multiple effective agents available to our patients with metastatic disease. At the same time, however, there are enormous gaps in our understanding of how to use these agents. It is likely that the way we practice prostate cancer oncology will be dramatically different in a few years. Just as molecular studies have been the basis of many of these new therapies, it is hoped that molecular research will clarify clinical practice and improve the lives of men with advanced prostate cancer." The article is here: Two other articles provide commentary on that article and contain useful supplementary viewpoints and information: one by Neal Shore - CancerNetwork 15 Nov, 2013 - see and the other by Elizabeth Kessler and Thomas Flaig - CancerNetwork 15 November 2013 see

New American Urological Association guideline for castration-resistant prostate cancer. In May 2013 the American Urological Association issued a "Guideline" relating to treatment of castration- resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). A summary of the guideline is presented in this 9 May 2013 Medscape Medical News article by Nick Mulcahy: The guideline gives consideration to the many drugs used in the treatment of CPRC including the new therapies that were approved for use in the USA since 2010: sipuleucel-T (Provenge, Dendreon), cabazitaxel (Jevtana, sanofi-aventis), abiraterone (Zytiga, Janssen), and enzalutamide (Xtandi, Astellas/ Medivation). The detailed guideline including the rationale for its structure is available from here:

The changing landscape in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer
. Author: Joelle El-Amm et al. Ther. Adv. Med. Oncol. 2013;5(1):25-40. In the author's words, "This review describes the clinical trials that brought about the drug approvals of various agents and offers some insights regarding a rational approach to optimal treatment sequencing for these drugs since national guidelines are currently lacking."..."The past few years have brought increasing advances in the therapeutic management of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer with the approval of several agents, including vaccine therapy with sipuleucel-T, second-line chemotherapy with cabazitaxel, the bone-targeted pharmaceutical denosumab, and the novel antiandrogen therapy abiraterone acetate. There are ongoing developments with other agents in the pipeline such as MDV3100 and alpharadin that have shown promising results. " Web link:

Enzalutamide found to be effective as a first-line treatment for castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CPRC). In a Medscape Urology article by Zosia Chustecka dated 22 October 2013 the results of a trial of Enzalutamide (MDV3100) as a first-line treatment for CPRC is reported. The author states: "The road ahead for first-line use in prostate cancer seems clear now for enzalutamide (Xtandi, Medivation/Astellas), after a pivotal phase 3 trial exploring this use of the drug was stopped early because of benefit. After an interim analysis showed significantly better overall survival with enzalutamide compared with placebo, the Independent Data Monitoring Committee recommended that the trial be stopped, and that patients who were receiving placebo should be offered the active drug...The results show that patients treated with enzalutamide had significantly longer overall survival, showing a 30% reduction in risk for death compared with placebo..." The article is here or here:

Chemotherapy for Prostate Cancer - When Should a Urologist Refer a Patient to a Medical Oncologist? Author: N D Shore. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2013;16(1):1-6. This article provides inter alia a comprehensive description of chemotherapy agents that may be used in treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Extract from the article: "The last few years have seen considerable evolution in treatment options and therapeutic strategies for patients with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). One major change was the expansion of chemotherapeutic options with the approval of cabazitaxel, representing the first chemotherapeutic therapy after docetaxel to demonstrate improved survival in patients with CRPC. A number of other noncytotoxic therapies have either recently been approved or are in advanced development for treating this patient population. Offering novel mechanisms of action, these new agents make considerably more expansive and complex the decisions regarding when to treat, which agents to use, and the order in which they are administered. A pivotal decision point for urologists who treat patients with advanced prostate cancer has been timing the patient's referral to an oncologist for chemotherapy. Although clinical guidelines regard chemotherapy as only appropriate for prostate cancer patients with symptomatic metastatic disease, increasing evidence points to the possibility that a subgroup of patients may benefit from an earlier introduction of chemotherapy. At the same time, additional treatment options that may either precede chemotherapy or follow initial chemotherapeutic failure mean that urologists must closely monitor their patients' health status to match specific clinical profiles with specific treatment options. With the increase in number and variety of therapeutic approaches, the role of the urologist has been expanded, in part, owing to the opportunity for urologists to administer treatments previously unavailable, and also owing to the growing importance of working cooperatively with oncologists and as a member of a multidisciplinary team." … "The way of the future in CRPC treatment points to the application of multiple agents, each with a particular efficacy at a particular stage of disease, administered to the same patient at various times with appropriate sequencing." Web link:

Shorter ADT appears to be best for high-risk prostate cancer. Reporter: Charles Bankhead. Medpage Today 12 February 2013. This article reports a single phase 3 trial undertaken by a team led by Dr Abdenour Nabid, in which they compared the effectiveness of 18 months of adjuvant androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with 36 months. The team concluded that ADT over 18 months was as effective as that for 36 months. Extracts from the article: "Men with node-negative high- risk prostate cancer lived just as long with a 50% shorter duration of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) compared with standard duration therapy, results of a randomized clinical trial showed."… "After a median follow-up of 6.5 years, 76.2% of patients who were treated with pelvic radiotherapy and androgen blockade remained alive after 18 months of ADT versus 77% of the men whose hormonal treatment continued twice as long, reported Abdenour Nabid, MD, of Sherbrooke University Hospital in Quebec."…"The treatment groups also did not differ with respect to 5- and 10-year overall and disease- specific survival (DSS), said Nabid during a press briefing prior to the Genitourinary Cancers Symposium. 'In localized high-risk prostate cancer treated with radiotherapy and androgen blockade, androgen blockade duration can be safely reduced from 36 to 18 months.' he explained. ' Eighteen months of androgen blockade could represent the threshold effect, with no further benefit for our patients. For these patients, side-effect duration and treatment costs of androgen blockade are significantly reduced.' 'My hope is that the shorter duration can become the standard,' he added." Bankhead cautions that "This study was published as an abstract and presented at a conference. These data and conclusions should be considered to be preliminary until published in a peer-reviewed journal." Web link: A summary of the results reported in Nabid's paper are also reported in this Prostate Cancer Infolink article:

Maximizing Survival in Metastatic Castrate-resistant Prostate Cancer. Author: Alison Birtle. Medscape Urology News: Expert Rev. Anticancer Ther. 2013;13(1):89-99. Extract from the article: Recently, licensed and emerging treatments for metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer are transforming the prognosis for men whose disease has already progressed during or after docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Two agents (cabazitaxel and abiraterone) are already accessible to prescribers, having shown survival benefits versus their comparators in randomized controlled trials, and other agents are showing promising results. A future in which metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer can be managed as a 'chronic disease' looks tantalizingly close. The challenge for clinicians will be to use these treatments rationally, in a way that optimizes each individual patient's chances of prolonged survival. Web link:

Use of 5-alpha reductase inhibitors decreased risk of prostate cancer. In a Medscape Urology News article dated 28 June 2013, Davis Robinson et al report their article to be published in the British Medical Journal. The objective of their study was "… to assess the association between 5α-reductase inhibitor (5-ARI) use in men with lower urinary tract symptoms and prostate cancer risk." The study design was a Nationwide, population based case-control study for men diagnosed with prostate cancer in 2007-09 within the Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden 2.0. The results as reported in the abstract of the study were: "Risk of prostate cancer overall decreased with an increasing duration of exposure; men on 5-ARI treatment for more than three years had an odds ratio of 0.72 (95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.89; P<0.001 for trend). The same pattern was seen for cancers with Gleason scores 2-6 and score 7 (both P<0.001 for trend). By contrast, the risk of tumours with Gleason scores 8-10 did not decrease with increasing exposure time to 5-ARI (for 0-1 year of exposure, odds ratio 0.96 (95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.11); for 1-2 years, 1.07 (0.88 to 1.31); for 2-3 years, 0.96 (0.72 to 1.27); for >3 years, 1.23 (0.90 to 1.68); P=0.46 for trend)." They concluded that "Men treated with 5-ARI for lower urinary tract symptoms had a decreased risk of cancer with Gleason scores 2-7, and showed no evidence of an increased risk of cancer with Gleason scores 8-10 after up to four years’ treatment." The article can be read here:

Abiraterone benefit extends to bone-related symptoms. Author: Sarah Payton. Nature Reviews Urology 10, 1 (January 2013) | doi:10.1038/nrurol.2012.232 Extract from the article: Abiraterone acetate not only improves survival but also provides pain relief and delays the occurrence of skeletal-related events, compared with placebo, in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), according to new analysis of the COU-AA-301 trial published in The Lancet Oncology.

Abiraterone in Metastatic Prostate Cancer without Previous Chemotherapy. Authors: Charles J Ryan et al. New Engl J Med 2013; 368:138-148 January 10, 2013DOI: 10.1056/NEJMoa1209096 Extract from the article: Background: Abiraterone acetate, an androgen biosynthesis inhibitor, improves overall survival in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy. We evaluated this agent in patients who had not received previous chemotherapy. Conclusions: Abiraterone improved radiographic progression-free survival, showed a trend toward improved overall survival, and significantly delayed clinical decline and initiation of chemotherapy in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Web link:

FDA approves use of prostate cancer pill (abiraterone) before chemo. Author: Kate Johnson. Medscape Urology News, Dec. 11 2012 Extract from the article: The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the expanded use of abiraterone acetate (Zytiga, Janssen Biotech Inc) to first-line therapy for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). The drug, which decreases testosterone production, was approved in April 2011 as a second-line treatment after docetaxel chemotherapy in the same population. This expanded approval "demonstrates the benefit of evaluating a drug in an earlier disease setting and provides patients and healthcare providers the option of using [abiraterone] earlier in the course of treatment," Richard Pazdur, MD, director of the Office of Oncology Drug Products in the FDA Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, stated in an FDA news release. The expanded use of abiraterone was approved by the FDA's priority review program on the basis of a randomized double-blind study, which was published online December 10 in the New England Journal of Medicine. (That is the Ryan et al study referred to above - Ed.) It comes on the heels of a recommendation made last month by the Committee for Medicinal Products for Human Use at the European Medicines Agency, which usually means an approval in Europe. Web link: 

New Agents for the Management of Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Author: Robert J Cersosimo. The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2012;46(11):1518-1528. Author's abstract: Objective: To review the activity of 3 new agents approved for the management of advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC): sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, and abiraterone acetate. Conclusions: The advent of new agents for the management of advanced CRPC has increased the choices for patients whose options were limited. Additional experience will determine the optimal sequencing of these agents, their roles in combination therapy, and their activity in patients with earlier disease. Web link:

Increased Survival with Enzalutamide for castration-resistance in prostate cancer after chemotherapy:  The approval by the US Food and Drug Administration of Enzalutamide (formerly MDV3100) for men with metastatic prostate cancer was reported in this 31 August 2012 web article by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center: The article indicates that the AFFIRM trial that was conducted amongst men who had castration-resistant prostate cancer after chemotherapy, led to FDA's approval. The trial was undertaken by Dr. Howard I Scher et al. A summary of their study is reported in this article: A copy of that article can also be downloaded as a 41 KB PDF file from our web site here.

Intermittent hormone therapy as good as continuous treatment for prostate cancer? In a Cancernetwork web article dated 11 September 2012 Anna Azvolinski reports the results of a study of the efficacy of intermittent androgen deprivation versus continuous therapy is reported: Azvolinsky states that: "Intermittent androgen deprivation was shown to be as efficacious as continuous therapy in terms of overall survival for men with prostate cancer whose prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels are rising after initial or salvage radiotherapy." It is stated that no adverse effects for intermittent treatment were noted and that the study's authors claim that physical and overall health symptoms were slightly better in the intermittent-therapy group. The study is: Crook JM, O’Callaghan CJ, Duncan G, et al.  Intermittent androgen suppression for rising PSA level after radiotherapy.  NEJM 2012;367:895-903 The same view about the Crook study is expressed in a webcast by Dr Gerald Chodack who stated that: "The results [of the study by Crook et al] showed that intermittent therapy was not inferior to continuous therapy in terms of overall survival or prostate cancer survival. There were small differences in these 2 groups, but they were not significant. Advantages of intermittent therapy that were observed were fewer complaints of hot flashes, improved sexual drive, and fewer urinary complaints, although the authors did find that most of the men over 75 years of age did not regain their sexual function even when therapy was stopped." Chodack also concludes that the Crook study "... goes along with another well-done study on men with metastatic disease that also showed no significant difference in overall survival, although men on intermittent therapy in that study had a slightly higher risk for death from prostate cancer and a slightly lower risk for death from other causes." This other study was undertaken by N Mottet et al. The Chodack webcast and a transcript of it can be viewed here: and a copy of the transcript can also be downloaded as a 74 KB PDF file from here.

Alpharadin drug treatment for castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases. In a Cancernetwork web article written by Anna Azvolinsky dated 29 September 2011, the results of a successful trial of a new drug amongst men with symptomatic, castration-resistant prostate cancer and bone metastases was reported. The drug is Alpharadin (Radium-223 chloride). In the article it is stated that: “Radium-223, an alpha particle given intravenously, has been shown to improve overall survival in men with castrate-resistant prostate cancer ... with a 30% risk reduction of death... The positive results from the phase III, randomized ALSYMPCA (ALpharadin in SYMPtomatic prostate CAncer) study were reported ... at the European Multidisciplinary Cancer Congress in Stockholm, Sweden. Dr Chris Parker of the Royal Marsden Hospital in Sutton, UK presented data showing that the radium-223 combined with best standard of care arm showed a 14 month medial overall survival, compared to 11.2 months for the placebo plus best standard of care arm." Other information about the study is reported in an Internal Medicine News Digital Network web article dated 26 September 2011 written by Patrice Wendling. A copy of the Avolinsky article can be downloaded from here as a 102 KB PDF file and the Wendling article from here as a 131 KB PDF file.

Article by Schieszer J: Should radiation therapy plus hormone therapy be the new standard of care for locally advanced prostate cancer? Oncology News International Vol. 19 No. 9 September 2, 2010. The author claims that while Androgen Deprivation Therapy (ADT) has become the primary treatment for men with locally advanced prostate cancer, emerging data suggest that ADT alone is not as effective as ADT plus External-beam Radiation Therapy (EBRT) and that recently, international researchers claim their data are strong enough to make continuous ADT plus EBRT the new standard of care. Viewable and downloadable as a 156 KB PDF file here.  

Effect of dutasteride on the risk of prostate cancer. An article by G L Andriole el al in The New England Journal of Medicine, 2010 362:1192-1202. The authors concluded that “...among men at increased risk for prostate cancer and for benign prostatic hyperplasia, dutasteride reduced the risk of prostate cancers and precursor lesions and improved many outcomes related to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Dutasteride may be considered as a treatment option for men who are at increased risk for prostate cancer.” The article can be viewed here or downloaded as a 426 KB PDF file from here.

Article by Fang L C, Merrick G S and Wallner K E:
Androgen Deprivation Therapy: A Survival Benefit or Detriment in Men With High-Risk Prostate Cancer? Oncology August 24, 2010 Vol. 24 No. 9. Viewable and downloadable as a 172 KB PDF file here. (This article is reviewed by O’Malley R, Poch M A and Mohler J - The Role, Timing, and Clinical Use of ADT in Prostate Cancer. Oncology August 24, 2010 Vol. 24 No. 9. Viewable and downloadable as a 16 KB PDF file here.)