Recent reviews, reports and research about risk factors related to incidence and/or recurrence of prostate cancer

Advanced prostate cancer linked to low melatonin. This is a single prospective study reported online in the Renal & urology News, 11 August 2014. It was undertaken in Iceland by Sarah C Markt et al and is summarised in a web article by Jody Charnow reported here or here: Charnow states: “Low urinary levels of melatonin are associated with an increased risk of advanced prostate cancer (PCa), new findings suggest.” He goes on to say that the study’s authors state that: “The study adds to accumulating epidemiological data investigating associations between circadian disruption or sleep loss and PCa, and provides a potential mechanism and framework for understanding prior results”.

Prostate cancer progression linked to obesity.
This is a large retrospective study by Bimal Bhindi et al and is summarised in a web article reported here or here: by Jody A Charnow who writes: “ Obesity may increase the long-term risk of disease progression in men on active surveillance for low-risk prostate cancer (PCa), according to study findings presented at the Canadian Urological Association annual meeting in St. John's, Newfoundland.” Reported online in the Renal & urology News, 30 June 2014.

Death from prostate cancer linked to weight at diagnosis
. A 2013 article by CancerNetwork Oncology reporter Anna Azvolinsky reports the results of a single small mortality study undertaken amongst 751 men who had prostatectomies. The study was undertaken by Reina Haque et al and reported in April 2013. Azvolinsky reports that "A greater proportion of men who died from their prostate cancer (30%) were obese [at the time of the prostatectomy] compared with 22% of the men in the control group. After adjusting for Gleason score, prostate tumor antigen levels, and tumor characteristics such as lymph node status, obese men had a greater than 50% increase in mortality from prostate cancer (adjusted odds ratio of 1.5) when compared with men who had a healthy BMI." Her article can be read here:

Type 2 diabetes and risk of prostate cancer. A meta-analysis of epidemiological studies published between 1970 and 2011 came to the conclusion that Type 2 diabetes is significantly inversely associated with the risk of developing prostate cancer. The analysis was undertaken by Dr A Bhansali et al. An abstract of their report is in this article in Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases:

An abstract of an article written by Corinne E Joshu et al reporting a relationship between smoking and prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy was reported on 18 May 2011 here: The abstract for the Joshu article can also be downloaded from here on our web site. While the article reports the results of just one study, a number of other researchers have reported that smoking appears to be a risk factor for both prostate cancer incidence and recurrence after treatment. See for example a recent report in 2011 by J C Presti etal in which it was reported that "Smoking is associated with adverse pathologic features and a higher risk of biochemical recurrence in men undergoing radical prostatectomy." The abstract for this study can be accessed here: and a copy of the extract can be downloaded from here on our web site. Reported in 2010 was a meta-analysis of 24 studies of the relationship between smoking and prostate cancer incidence and mortality, undertaken by Dr. Michael Huncharek et al. They concluded that "Observational cohort studies show an association of smoking with prostate cancer incidence and mortality. Ill-defined exposure categories in many cohort studies suggest that pooled data underestimate risk." This report can be accessed here: and can also be downloaded from here on our web site.

A segment from Dr Norman Swan’s ABC radio program ‘The Health Report’ on 6 September 2010. Dr Swan interviewed Michael Pollak - Professor of Medicine and Oncology at McGill University, Montreal. The interview discusses recent research into the relationship between obesity, insulin and prostate cancer outcomes. The original audio can be listened to here. A transcript can be downloaded from here as a 53 KB PDF file.

Article by Brandt, A. et al entitled
Age-Specific Risk of Incident Prostate Cancer and Risk of Death from Prostate Cancer Defined by the Number of Affected Family Members. The pre-print version of the article to be published in European Urology 58 2010 pp 275-280 can be downloaded as a 135 KB PDF file from here. The study concluded that there were “... vast increases in risk when multiple first-degree relatives are affected.” Presentation charts showing key findings can be downloaded as a 385 KB PDF file from here.

Article by Susman, E reporting studies that suggest that
excess weight and smoking may influence risk of disease relapse after treatment for prostate cancer. Oncology NEWS International Vol. 19 No. 6 June 22 2010. Viewable and downloadable from here as a 61 KB PDF file.

Report of
research by kConFab on the BRCA2 gene and prostate cancer risk. The research concluded that if a man comes from a family with multiple cases of breast or ovarian cancer, or knows there is a BRCA2 gene mutation running in their family, they may be at increased risk of developing prostate cancer. Press release can be downloaded from here as a 29 KB PDF file.